Low Noise Block Amplifier/Converter, pronounced as three letters. The LNB receives the very weak microwave signal reflected from the dish, then amplifies it and converts it to a lower frequency before sending it on to the receive modem.
The "Low Noise" part of the name is important. The incoming signal is extremely low, and any electrical noise introduced by the Amplifier/Converter must be even smaller still, to keep the signal-to-noise ratio within reasonable levels.
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